Did the FBI Drop the Ball on Pearl Harbor?

75 Years After Pearl Harbor, the FBI Continues to Withhold Evidence

Pearl Harbor
The US Navy battleships USS West Virginia (BB-48) (sunken at left) and USS Tennessee (BB-43) shrouded in smoke following the Japanese air raid on Pearl Harbor. FBI Seal (inset). Photo credit: Airman Magazine / FLickr (CC BY-NC 2.0) and Federal Bureau of Investigation / Wikimedia.
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Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests show that, even today, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is withholding thousands of pages of documents relevant to intelligence obtained before Japan’s 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. The files involved were not supplied to the nine subsequent official enquires into the disaster. As a consequence, even now, there has been no adequate investigation of how the Bureau and other agencies handled the pre-attack intelligence. Instead, the commanders in chief in Hawaii at the time, the Navy’s Admiral Husband E. Kimmel and the Army’s Lieutenant General Walter Short, bore the brunt of the blame.

Enough is known about two of the withheld files to establish that they relate to Japanese espionage in Hawaii. One, the FBI has told us, contains more than 2,500 pages relating to 1941 alone. A copy of a document from the file, which we discovered among released State Department files, may explain the withholding. It shows that an FBI source identified Japan’s most important spy in Hawaii, a consular official using the name Tadashi Morimura, nearly five months before the attack.

This crucial bit of intelligence, however, led to no breakthrough in divining the intentions of the Japanese military. Instead, Hoover’s agents squandered this and other opportunities to find out what Japan was planning:

More than a year before the attack, the FBI had identified a German resident in Hawaii, Otto Kühn, as a possible spy for Germany’s ally, Japan. It noted that Kühn was living beyond his means and often entertained US military personnel. Surveillance of Kühn, however, was only intermittent. He met unobserved, at his home, with Morimura, only weeks before the attack. An FBI report would erroneously conclude that he was not involved in espionage after all.

In March 1941, in the course of penetrating a German spy ring in New York, the FBI seized German spy reports on US fleet strength and on Army defenses at Pearl Harbor that were deemed “of interest to our yellow allies.” The spy report was not shared with the Bureau’s Navy and Army counterparts in Hawaii.

In August 1941, British intelligence provided the FBI with a very detailed German military questionnaire about the defense capabilities of the base at Pearl Harbor  one that was rated urgent. The FBI did share that with Navy and Army intelligence, but nobody treated the questionnaire as significant.

Just five days before the attack, a turf squabble between the Bureau and Navy intelligence in Hawaii  it was characterized as “childish” by a later investigator for the Secretary of War  resulted in all phone taps on the Japanese consulate being removed. At a crucial moment, the opportunity to gain potentially vital intelligence was lost.

FBI mistakes were acknowledged in some of the bureau’s internal investigations. Assistant Director Milton Ladd would later report to J. Edgar Hoover that there had been “general investigative delinquency in the field during the period immediately prior to and subsequent to Pearl Harbor.”  The Director, however, ever adept at deflecting criticism, pointed the finger at others.

Documents show that Hoover wrote to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and to Supreme CourtJustice Owen J. Roberts, who was leading the initial Pearl Harbor inquiry, stating that military intelligence had intercepted the “complete plans” for Japan’s attack 10 days before the raid. The inference was that the military had done nothing.

The FBI focused attention on a supposedly sinister phone conversation it had intercepted, 36 hours before the raid, between an ethnically Japanese couple and a caller from Tokyo. The Bureau had shared a transcript of the call with Navy and Army intelligence, who had not thought it significant. Congress’s later Joint Inquiry would heavily criticize the military on that count. When briefing congressional leaders, however, Hoover failed to say that the FBI also now thought the call had likely been innocent.

So deeply ingrained was the infamous mantra “Don’t Embarrass the Bureau” that Robert Shivers, the agent-in-charge in Hawaii, rushed to write Hoover after the attack: “I want you to know that I have upheld the Bureau in all its interests since the beginning of the attack on December 7…My first loyalty, thought and obligation is to you and for you  next comes the Bureau and after that the general welfare.”

In a March 1941 report, Shivers had written, “It is not conceivable that there could be a hostile attack on the Hawaiian Islands so long as the Pacific Fleet is present…”

In a review of a report on the Bureau’s work before the Pearl Harbor attack, Assistant Director Ladd was to recommend that  should the report be supplied to Congress  this line and several others would need to be “eliminated”. It was decided not to provide Congress with any part of the 501-page report. Unlike other intelligence chiefs, Hoover himself never testified before  any of the official inquiries into Pearl Harbor.

Today, there can be no excuse for continued retention of the thousands of pages of FBI documents on the catastrophe that are still withheld.

Anthony Summers and Robbyn Swan are the authors of A MATTER OF HONOR, Pearl Harbor: Betrayal, Blame and a Family’s Quest for Justice, just published by Harper.


Related front page panorama photo credit: Adapted by WhoWhatWhy from Pearl Harbor (Airman Magazine / FLickr – CC BY-NC 2.0), Robert Shivers (Federal Bureau of Investigation), FBI seal (Federal Bureau of Investigation / Wikimedia).

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12 responses to “Did the FBI Drop the Ball on Pearl Harbor?”

  1. Brad Anbro says:

    I will try to keep this comment as “civilized, relevant, clear and short” as possible. This “article” is nothing but NONSENSE. The USA KNEW that Pearl Harbor was going to be attacked before it had happened. There are two books that have extensively covered this subject. The first was written by a decorated U.S. Navy veteran, who served in World War II. His name is Robert Stinnett and the title of his book is “Day of Deceit: The Truth About Pearl Harbor and FDR.” Mr. Stinnett did a tremendous amount of research in preparation to writing this book and he conclusively found that the American armed forces had cracked every one of the Japanese codes and KNEW that Pearl Harbor was definitely going to be attacked.

    The other book was written by John Toland, titled “Infamy: Pearl Harbor and its Aftermath.” Like almost every other major war, World War II was started because of lies and deception. FDR’s “advisors” had concocted a “plan” whereby they would humiliate Japan to the point of attacking the USA, so as to provide us with an “excuse” to enter the war. The USA could not wait to enter the
    war because they knew that there was so much MONEY waiting to be made…

  2. intalecshul says:

    “Blunder”?

  3. Fab Farn says:

    “Pearl Harbour memo shows US warned of Japanese attack”

    On the 70th anniversary of Pearl Harbour, the attack that propelled America
    into the Second World War, a declassified memo shows that Japanese surprise
    attack was expected.

    Best regards.

    Fabrice

    PS “History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon”

    by Napoleon Bonaparte, French military and political leader.

  4. (Comment by reader @Portland_jet) The possible results of isolationism. Must be very careful and maintain balance.

  5. Joseph Milosch says:

    Hi, I generally am a conspiracy seeing person, but I have to admit that Pearl Harbor was Kimmel’s fault.

    It is clear enough that the Navy’s original finding of Kimmel’s negligence was correct. Steve Twomey’s book states, and I agree with it, that any top Navy officer should be able to deal with important matters on his own, and take appropriate action, without being given specific orders to do so. Top officers should not need hand-holding.

    Specifically, both Kimmel and Army Commander Short both received notification 10 days before the attack, that war with Japan was inevitable. Short took specific steps to prevent sabotage, Kimmel did nothing. He should have sent out search patrol planes.

    It is negligent, when informed that war is inevitable, not to start watching for enemy activity. If you were informed that war was coming as a certainty, wouldn’t you consider it appropriate behavior to start watching your area? Kimmel was negligent as a naval Commander, no conspiracy there.

  6. Stoney says:

    Read or listen to Robert Stinnett’s “Day of Deceit: The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor” It discusses this topic in detail and is very good.

    • diogenes says:

      More than “Very good” — it is definitive and shows that authors like Summers have simply failed to do their homework. Stinnet’s book includes approach 100 pages of reproduced documents extracted from federal archives by Public Information Act suits. Stinnett PROVES that FDR set up Pearl Harbor. Read his book for yourself. PROVES is the right word.

    • intalecshul says:

      Churchill demanded that the U.S. enter the war and FDR made sure of it.
      Churchill was First Lord of the Admiralty during WWI when another “provocation/intentional stand-down” op went down — the sailing of the Lusitania loaded with munitions (in addition to its civilian passengers) into German patrolled waters.

  7. David Redick says:

    FDR wanted to get into WW@ but needed an ‘incident’. He cut off oil, scrap metal, etc. Their military got mad and finally convinced the Emperor to attack. So the CIA isn’t covering what they did somewhere, but what FDR made them do! They sacrificed the top USA military people by hiding the plot from them as it was prepared and happened.

  8. a.c.hall says:

    FDR forced the Japs to attack Pearl, because he and the Dutch operated a Pacific Oil Blockade. The Dutch denied the Japs access to Batavia and the Dutch East Indies oilfield, and FDR blocked the US Pacific Coast Oil Ports such as San Diego. The Japs would have run out of oil if they didn’t attack Batavia. To do that they needed to neutralise the US Pacific Fleet and the British Capital Ships in Singapore. Churchill and FDR needed Pearl Harbor attacked to force the US Public to accept US Forces in Europe. G.W.Bush created another “Pearl Harbor” with 9-11. FDR and Churchill also needed Nazi Germany to attack Russia to bleed the Wehrmacht to death and enable Occupied Europe to be “Liberated”.

  9. 0040 says:

    Like Woodrow Wilson in WW1, FDR was committed to entering WW2 under any pretext. During that era the FBI played within its own borders exclusively, and were fixated on murdering high profile gangsters, busting labor unions, and gathering info on people J Edgar considered commies.

    For the MIC, the attack on Pearl Harbour was a gift that kept on giving , much the same as Korea under Truman, or Vietnam under Johnson, and 9/11 under Bush/Obama, became. Even though this data may have passed through FBI hands at some point that agency had neither the resources or inclination to deal with it. J Edgar was a big advocate for interning Japanese Americans of course. Another retro rewrite using factoids designed to justify and obfuscate.

    FBI never handled the ‘ball” in that era they were playing defense. It is far more likely that OSS/CIA would have far more embarrassing files buried in their archives, probable sitting next to JFK’s bullet-riddled head.