After $40 Billion, America’s Biggest Nuclear Dump Is Still Leaking

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Washington State Ghost Town—Hanford. Courtesy of photographer, Clane Gessel.

It’s cost $40 billion so far to clean up America’s biggest nuclear waste site—half the size of Rhode Island—and it’s going to take another 40 years and $100 billion to finish the job.

In the meantime, workers from the Hanford nuclear site in Washington State are still getting sick from exposure to any one of 1,400 chemicals identified there, while allegations of mismanagement, negligence and secrecy over what may be life-threatening risks persist.

And delays keep piling up even though at least a third of the aging tanks storing 56 million gallons radioactive waste have leaked or are leaking, pouring some of the world’s most dangerous contaminants into the Columbia River.

Yet the treatment plant to create safe storage for all that waste—which will remain radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years—still isn’t built. It should have been finished three years ago. And the Environmental Protection Agency  is skeptical that the plant’s current completion date of 2022 will be met.

Only Another 40 Years to Go

The plant is a crucial part of a wider remediation job that’s decades from being done, according to Dennis Faulk, the EPA’s program manager for Hanford

“I think we have another 40 years to go,” Faulk told WhoWhatWhy. “And another $100 billion will be needed over that time.” It costs about $2 billion a year to keep cleaning.

The EPA oversees and enforces the cleanup efforts, which are carried out by the Department of Energy and the contractors it hires. Both Congress and the Department of Energy itself have given those efforts a failing grade.

The Department of Energy’s internal watchdog last year blamed the department and the contractor that’s building the plant, Bechtel National Inc., for the delays. The Department of Energy’s oversight lacked focus and Bechtel implemented scores of design changes without subjecting them to the required nuclear safety review, according to a report from the department’s Inspector General.

Congress’ Government Accountability Office was harsher. It recommended shutting down construction until the design work is completed safely, and said the Department of Energy was prematurely awarding millions in performance incentives to Bechtel. Most critical work on the plant has been shut down.

Columbia River, White Bluffs, part of Hanford

Meanwhile, Bechtel and another contractor are fighting whistleblower lawsuits from two former employees, and guess who’s paying for their legal fees? The Department of Energy is.

All of those complications are worsened by the fact that the search for waste keeps turning up surprises, like nearly 100 pieces of spent fuel found in Native American burial grounds. So as the Herculean task creeps forward, occasional new contamination findings like that add time to the clock, which means the projected completion dates are really only theoretical.

Hanford wasn’t built with an abundance of forethought. The job of making weapons-grade plutonium came first. Everything else, like planning for the waste and telling people about the release of radioactive materials, came second.

Hanford was one of the country’s primary production centers for nuclear weapons, from the 1943 to the end of the Cold War. Located along the Columbia River, Hanford supplied plutonium for hundreds, if not thousands, of bombs for America’s Cold War stockpile, and for the Manhattan Project, which helped end World War II while ushering in the nuclear age.

The War Department needed secrecy for the Manhattan Project and Hanford’s remoteness afforded that. So in 1943, it evicted the 1,500 or so farmers living in the towns of Hanford and White Bluffs and relocated six Native American tribes who’d lived there for centuries.

Hurry Up With the Nukes, Already

After World War II, the government decided that one reactor at Hanford wasn’t enough and built eight more to ramp up production of plutonium a material with a 24,000-year half-life. Hanford ballooned to 586 square miles in size. To put that in perspective, that’s nearly half the size of Rhode Island. And a bigger site meant there was more nuclear waste to deal with.

“Low Level” Nuclear Waste Disposal, Hanford, 1950. Department of Energy Photo

As much as a million gallons of radioactive waste have leaked from Hanford’s underground tanks—more than all of the leaks from all other nuclear facilities in the U.S. combined, according to Tom Carpenter, an attorney and the executive director of Hanford Challenge. The watchdog group represents Hanford workers and whistleblowers.

In a letter to Washington State Attorney-General Bob Ferguson in April, Hanford Challenge alleged that 38 workers had been exposed to vapors since March and urged the state to act where the Energy Department hasn’t. There are currently about 11,000 workers at the site.

Another 20 Years of Failure

Further, contractors at Hanford have had a string of problems, from corruption to failing to meet deadlines. That kind of performance by the Department of Energy and its contractors is why there’s no end in sight to the cleanup, he said.

“The one common denominator there is the Department of Energy and until you change them out as the manager of the cleanup, we’re going to see another 20 years of failure out there,” Carpenter said.

The delays are mainly due to the discovery of new waste, said Cameron Hardy, spokesman for the Energy Department’s Richland, Washington, office. He said most of the contractors now are “high-performing. There was the potential for a lot of abuse in the early years, but things have changed since then.”

Environmental Group: River Loaded With Contaminants

Contamination levels in and along the Columbia River—an outdoor Mecca for sporting enthusiasts and backpackers—are unsafe for people living and recreating downstream, not to mention a major Chinook salmon spawning point close to Hanford, according to conservationists.

The river is full of some of the most dangerous contaminants in the world, says one environmental monitor. The site’s tanks are leaking into the soil, which ends up in the groundwater and eventually, the river, according to Dan Serres, conservation director with the Oregon-based environmental group Columbia Riverkeeper.

image001“In 25 years we’ve accomplished a lot in the cleanup, but the most difficult challenges lie ahead and the river is loaded with contaminants,” he said.

Part of the challenges ahead included finishing the waste treatment plant, and sealing up the nine reactors so they can be dealt with when the technology exists. Hundreds of support buildings have to be demolished, too.

“Once these reactors get cleaned up, there’s really not much left on the landscape,” the Energy Department’s Hardy said.

What’s on the landscape, however, isn’t the problem. It’s what’s going to be left in it.

Hanford and the Columbia River

IMAGE: Clane Gessel’s Washington State Ghost Town – Hanford

IMAGE: Columbia River, White Bluffs, part of Hanford

IMAGE:  “Low Level” Waste disposal

IMAGE: Hanford and the Columbia River

IMAGE: Sources of Contamination

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23 responses to “After $40 Billion, America’s Biggest Nuclear Dump Is Still Leaking”

  1. Title

    […]the time to read or take a look at the material or sites we have linked to below the[…]

  2. Kergun says:

    Well, I’ve worked as a contractor for many years for virtually all of these companies. I can tell you from experience, incompetence rules! Anybody with real skills that tries to use real engineering methods soon finds himself packing his bags. The guy below, Rick, is also right.

  3. Rick Carufel says:

    Make no mistakes here, $40 billion was not spent to contain the site. Maybe a few $100 million was spent on the site and the lion’s share of the money went to corporate profits.

    • Dr. John Miller says:

      Hi, I’m a nuclear reporter who used to be a Navy nuke engineering officer on a sub. I would love to interview you too. Pls contact me at

  4. Beetlejuice says:

    What a testament to stupidity!
    Failure after failure after failure.
    If these boneheads had spent $40 billion, again….$40 BILLION dollars on renewable energy research AND negotiated PEACE and COOPERATION with our “imaginary” enemies so as to NOT have to build weapons of massive destruction, imagine how advanced our species could be by now.

    But, we are governed and controlled by little boys that like playing war and steal other people’s resources. So they build dangerous weapons and start threatening everyone with them. Tisk, Tisk, Tisk…..

  5. ICFubar says:

    Very very nasty. It’s too bad that nuclear energy has proven to be such a disaster as the world needs a alternative to fossil fuels. But if we can’t operate these plants in a 100% safe manner then we should not be operating them. Guess renewables like solar and geo thermal will have to substitute.

    • PrMaine says:

      On top of being such a disaster from the standpoint of safety, nuclear energy is extremely expensive. Operating costs may be low – if you ignore the costs of waste disposal – but true insurance costs are extremely high as are construction costs.

      The only reason we have nuclear energy plants at all is the massive infusion of federal tax subsidies and the Price Anderson act – which absolves the plants from the enormous liability should an accident happen. This should concern anyone living near one of these plants – homeowners will have to pick up the costs of any accident.

    • ICFubar says:

      excellent points, now the people who brought us Chernobyl and Fukushima are touting Thorium reactors as the next great thing.

    • Russell Frerichs says:

      You need to work for Fox News. You have the same attention to detail as they do.

    • ICFubar says:

      just like your in depth comment….

    • Journe says:

      I am just a senior learning but I live near the San Onofre plant in
      So. CALIF…ITS been leaking into ocean for years due to rust and
      No maintenance. Last year Senator was down here & asked the
      Manager of the plant “what would we do in case of real emergency?”
      And manager said “keep gas in car full and get out of town ASAP!”
      I SAW that on CSPAN. Not maintained over years by our So.Calif.
      EDISON UTILITY so now publics consumer rates keep going up
      To pay as it been shut down! No news, no info, appears nothing done
      Yet. But when a company, utility owns these darn things, refuses to
      Maintain them, AND then charges the public to pay for work unknown
      To us, is infuriating! ESPECIALLY when they should maintain, replace, overtime as needed. Now everyone at risk of radiation from
      Our own plants but also from Japan too. Info silent, Govt. Silent
      & meantime USA spends fortunes on wars and attacks world over
      Spending fortunes on stupid things, while we will all die or be sick
      From Radiation but Pharma Will come up with Drugs for some
      Made up disease. Fighting, killing, violence, anger, hate, spending,
      Is all futile and going on for all the wrong neglected reasons.
      Hope we all have our Souls in order towards EVENTUAL PEACE.

  6. Rand says:

    What nobody talks about is the easily measured radiation that is washed down the river from upstream, before it ever gets down to Hanford. Now in America, many have been poisoned against the idea of nuclear power by the nut-bar Enviros. Nuclear remains the most efficient and safest and cheapest source of reliable power we can have, now

    • gragor11a says:

      Let’s hear it for the nutbar environmentalists. The hippies were right all along and they are still right.

    • Earthman says:

      And the meek shall inherit the earth……Sure it will.Whats left.Peace to all who care.

    • Dr. John Miller says:

      What is the source of that upstream radiation? Please cite evidence.

    • cpapermaster says:

      Hey Rand. Why do you think it’s nutty to protect ourselves from radiation poisoning? Isn’t it the other way around? It’s nutty to believe that nuclear is safe and cheap in light of the facts, which show quite the opposite!

  7. ILUVQ says:

    Which is why Nevada does not want Yucca Mountain.

  8. CharlestonVoice says:

    Why don’t the states expel all other fed agencies from their sovereign state lands?